? ? ? ? 磷礦石多產于沉積巖，也有產于變質巖和火成巖，除個別情況外，礦物中的磷總是以正磷酸鹽形態存在，磷的主要礦物為磷灰石。磷是重要的化工原料，也是農作物生長的必要元素，工業用磷必須大量從磷礦中提取，用于制造黃磷、赤磷、磷酸、磷肥、磷酸鹽。英文名為PHOSPHATE ROCK 。分子式:3Ca3(PO4)2·CaR2。
? ? ? ? 磷的物理性質: 游離態磷有白磷、紅磷和黑磷三種同素異型體.
? ? ? ? 白磷: 分子是由四個磷原子構成的正四面體.鍵角60°. 白色蠟狀, 因常帶有黃色, 有叫黃磷. 難溶于水,易溶于非極性溶劑如CS2，有劇毒(0.01g―0.06g致命)，著火點40℃ 所以少量的白磷保存在冷水;
? ? ? ? 紅磷: 復雜的大分子, 結構尚未完全清楚, 但已知其結構中有磷原子構成的環和鏈，棕紅色粉末，基本無毒，常壓下加熱則升華為磷蒸汽, 遇冷凝結為白磷，難溶于水和二硫化碳等;
? ? ? ?黑磷: 黑色有金屬光澤的晶體, 它是用白磷在很高壓強和較高溫度下轉化而成的磷, 使用價值不大。
? ? ? ? 我國磷礦資源比較豐富，已探明的資源儲量僅次于摩洛哥和美國，居世界第3位。云南、貴州、四川、湖北和湖南5省是我國主要磷礦資源儲藏地區，儲量達98.6億t，占全國總儲量的74.5%。
? ? ? ? 磷化工包括磷肥工業、黃磷及磷化物工業、磷酸及磷酸鹽工業、有機磷化物工業、含磷農藥及醫藥工業等等。世界上磷礦石的消費結構中約80%左右生產磷肥后用于農業，其余的用于提取黃磷、磷酸及制造其它磷酸鹽系列產品。磷化工產品在工業、國防、尖端科學和人民生活中已被普遍應用。除了在農業中用作磷肥、含磷農藥、家禽和牲畜的飼料以外，在洗滌劑、冶金、機械、選礦、鉆井、電鍍、顏料、涂料、紡織、印染、制革、醫藥、食品、玻璃、陶瓷、搪瓷、水處理、耐火材料、建筑材料、日用化工、造紙、彈藥、阻燃及滅火等方面廣泛使用。隨著科技的發展，高純度及特種功能磷化工產品在尖端科學、國防工業等方面被進一步的推廣應用，出現了大量新產品，如:電子電氣材料、傳感元件材料、離子交換劑、催化劑、人工生物材料、太陽能電池材料、光學材料等等。由于磷化工產品不斷向更多的產業部門滲透，特別是在尖端科學和新興產業部門中的應用，使磷化工成為國民經濟中的一個重要的產業。磷化工產品在人們的衣、食、住、行各個領域，發揮著越來越重要的作用
? ? ? ? 采礦方法:我國磷礦的開采方式分為地下開采和露天開采兩大類;地下開采約占開采總產量的60%，其采礦方法主要為房柱法。露天開采有代表性的大中型礦山是云南磷化學工業(集團)公司、昆陽、晉寧磷礦、湖北黃麥嶺磷化工集團公司、貴州甕福、湖北荊襄大峪口磷礦，約占磷礦總產量的40%。
? ? ? ? 本發明涉及一種制造磷酸一二鈣的方法，具體涉及一種利用稀磷酸與含鈣化合物(碳酸鈣、氧化鈣、氫氧化鈣及脫氟磷酸三鈣)進行兩步液相中和反應生產磷酸一二鈣的方法
? ? ? ? 飼料級磷酸一二鈣是在性能上介于飼料級磷酸二氫鈣與飼料級磷酸氫鈣之間，其基本組成為磷酸氫鈣與磷酸二氫鈣的礦物質飼料添加劑，由于在磷的組成上既含有水溶磷又含有枸溶磷，因而在適用范圍上既適用畜禽飼料，也作為水產飼料的礦物質飼料添加劑，尤其是用在畜禽飼料中與磷酸氫鈣相比磷的消化利用率高出7％-14％。該品種在國內已逐步得到推廣，在國外已得到廣泛的應用。
? ? ? ? 目前磷酸一二鈣的生產方法有兩種一種是采用稀磷酸與沉淀法磷酸氫鈣半成品或成品反應，讓一部分沉淀法磷酸氫鈣與磷酸作用生成磷酸二氫鈣，生成的含有磷酸氫鈣與磷酸二氫鈣的料漿經噴霧干燥，制得微粒狀的磷酸一二鈣產品，例如ZL01107221.0。
? ? ? ? 另一種方法是國外普遍采用的濃磷酸“固相反應”法，用五氧化二磷為51-54％的濃磷酸與一定量配比的碳酸鈣進行固相反應，反應結束后物料經熟化、粉碎、篩分得到磷酸一二鈣的產品。例如英國KUAERNER工藝，意大利BASLINI PROFILE工藝等均采用碳酸鈣、氧化鈣粉與五氧化二磷50％左右的濃磷酸固相轉化反應，直接得到飼料級磷酸一二鈣產品。
? ? ? ? 現行的兩種工藝方法都存在不同的缺陷第一種方法采用磷酸與磷酸氫鈣半成品反應，第一步要制得沉淀法磷酸氫鈣半成品使生產工藝過程變長，在制得沉淀法磷酸氫鈣的同時產生了白磷肥與母液沉淀和廢水，應用該工藝路線生產成本高、磷的利用率低、環境影響大。
? ? ? ? 另一種方法采用濃縮凈化磷酸與碳酸鈣直接反應，雖不再產生白磷肥與母液沉淀，磷的利用率提高，但由于采用磷酸濃縮脫氟技術，磷酸濃縮裝置投入大、設備維護費用高；同時因采用濃磷酸與碳酸鈣固相轉化反應，熟化時間長，物料反應不完全，產品純度不高。最重要的是由于反應體系的游離水不足，使得生成的磷酸氫鈣與磷酸二氫鈣結晶水不完全。據四川農大曹惠(2003)和RUCKER(1968)的研究發現含結晶水的磷酸鹽在酸性環境下的溶解速度要大于不含結晶水磷酸鹽的溶解速度，含結晶水的磷酸鹽在小腸胃酸的作用下能迅速溶解被動物吸收，因此動物對含結晶水的磷酸鹽的吸收利用率要高于不含結晶水的磷酸鹽，所以濃磷酸固相反應生產的磷酸一二鈣產品的實際生物學效價低于含結晶水完全的磷酸一二鈣產品。
? ? ? ? 本發明所采用的磷酸一二鈣生產方法克服了上述兩種生產方法的不足。本發明直接采用稀磷酸與含鈣化合物(碳酸鈣、氧化鈣、氫氧化鈣及脫氟磷酸三鈣)進行第一步液相中和反應，生成磷酸二氫鈣的料漿，再向該料漿中加入含鈣化合物(碳酸鈣、氧化鈣、氫氧化鈣)進行第二步液相中和反應，使一部分磷酸二氫鈣轉化為磷酸氫鈣生成含磷酸氫鈣和磷酸二氫鈣的混合料漿，再將該料漿進行噴霧干燥，獲得磷酸一二鈣產品。
? ? ? ? 本發明直接采用稀磷酸與含鈣化合物反應，原料便宜易得，無白肥、廢水排放，生產成本低；并且在料漿反應的全過程始終是液相反應，干燥過程采用閃干，濕球溫度低，因而產品結晶水保持完全，產品質量優異。
? ? ? ? 產品名稱 磷酸一二鈣
? ? ? ? 產品英文簡稱 MDCP
? ? ? ? 產品別名 磷酸氫鈣
? ? ? ? 分子式 Ca(H2PO4)2?H2O+CaHPO4?2H20
? ? ? ? 產品用途 用作飼料添加劑，多用于補充幼小畜禽動物對磷和鈣的需求。
? ? ? ? 物化性質 磷酸一二鈣，干燥后呈松散的白色粉狀結晶體或顆粒。產品呈中性，熔于稀酸，40%溶于水，加熱至90℃左右開始逐漸失去結晶水。
? ? ? ? 磷酸一二的優勢
? ? ? ? 顆粒狀一二鈣與粉狀氫鈣相比，減少粉塵，改善飼料廠車間加工環境，尤其是預混料粉塵較大，物料浪費嚴重，而且存在火災安全隱患，使用一二鈣可以有效的減少物料的浪費和成本流失
? ? ? ? 磷酸一二鈣總磷21%，水溶磷含量高。磷酸氫鈣總磷16.5%，不含水溶磷，它只能通過溶于酸來消化吸收，吸收率只有60%~70%左右，剩下的就隨糞便排出體外，造成資源浪費和環境污染，而磷酸一二鈣即溶于酸又溶于水，比氫鈣吸收率高20%左右，生物學效價更高，即減少環境污染更節約成本。
? ? ? ? 磷酸氫鈣PH值=7~8,磷酸一二鈣PH值=3.5~4.5呈酸性，提高飼料適口性，減少酸化劑用量，改善腸胃道環境，緩解預混料氧化、變色。
? ? ? ? 磷酸一二鈣遵循歐洲重金屬標準，遠低于國內標準，減輕肝腎負擔，提高動物健康指標，例如像帝斯曼這樣的很少外企，還有集團公司要求氫鈣中砷在15ppm一下，國內標準是30ppm一下，歐洲標準是10ppm一下，一二鈣砷含量低于企業要求。
? ? ? ? 磷酸一二鈣價格隨磷酸氫鈣價格上下浮動。磷酸一二鈣的生物學效價比磷酸氫鈣高，與農科院合作的最新實驗數據結果高出20%。為了穩妥起見，我們推薦磷酸一二鈣的生物學效價比磷酸氫鈣的高出10%，氫鈣添加量：一二鈣添加量=1:0.7，就可以達到您現在的磷的水平。
? ? ? ?千里之行始于足下
? ? ? ?今年是濰坊利民飼料成立15 周年，風雨兼程公司一直致力于國內磷酸鹽的發展和推廣
? ? ? ? 磷酸一二鈣從無到有，時間證明了這條路并不平坦，也驗證了一個公司的發展壯大歷程。感恩一路陪伴著的你們。
WONDERFUL Post.thanks for share..extra wait .. ?
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